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— Glossary —

Sanskrit Terms Used in the Text

abhidheya
absolutely compulsory duties; the immanent means to attain the ultimate goal; chanting the holy name and serving the Lord under the bona fide guru's supervision.
acarya
a devotee who teaches by example, he is a spiritual master who is a pure devotee and can guide his disciples to spiritual perfection.
acintya-bhedabheda-tattva
the teaching of the relationship of inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference among the jiva, the Lord and His energies.
ahaituki-krpa
causeless mercy (of the Lord or His pure devotee).
ahlada
the bliss potency latent within the jivas.
ajna
a wise and mature person.
ajnata-sukrti
pious activities performed unknowingly.
alambana
the person who is the object of sentiment, who is of two types: visaya and asraya. The devotee of Lord Krsna is the asraya (receptacle), and Lord Krsna Himself is the visaya (subject) of ecstatic love.
anartha
unwanted material desires in the heart that pollute the consciousness, such as pride, , envy, , greed, anger, and desires for distinction, adoration, wealth, etc.
anartha-nivrtti
overcoming anarthas.
anubhava
the physical expression of permanent ecstatic emotions; it results from vibhava, or the activities of alambana and uddipana (which see); examples: dancing, rolling on the ground, singing, stretching, crying out, yawning, heavy breathing, neglecting others, drooling, laughing like a madman, wheeling the head, belching, trembling, etc.
anuraga
spontaneous attraction for the Lord's name; a state where the sense of lover and beloved enrapturing each other into the state of complete obedience increases.
anusmrti
when dhyana becomes continual.
apana-dasa
the stage of application; when one is able to perfectly invoke the sentiments of rasa, he attains apana-dasa or prapti-dasa.
Aparadha
an offense against the holy name, the Deity, one's service or a devotee.
arati
a traditional Vedic ceremony during which nice offerings of incense, ghee lamp, flower, etc. are made to the Deity of the Lord.
arcane
the regulated worship of the Deity form of Krsna; one of the nine principal limbs of devotional service.
artha
economic development in terms of Vedic social codes (varnasrama-dharma).
asakti
attachment to Krsna's service.
asat-sanga
association with people who are not sadhus.
asat-irsna
a longing for, or attachment to illusory temporal objects.
asrama
any of the four stages of life of the Vedic varnasrama-dharma social system: brahmacari (celibate student life at the house of the guru), grhastha (married householder life), vanaprastha (retired life, when one wanders to the holy places), and sannyasa (the renounced order of life); a sacred sanctuary, free from material activities, aspirations and tedium.

asraya-tattva
an eternal associate of the Lord who is the divine shelter principle for the conditioned souls. The jiva must, take shelter of a raganuga devotee in his specific rasa to enter the eternal pastimes of the Lord.
asraya-vigraha
Srimati Radharani, the residenccof the Lord's spiritual love; the jiva must never consider himself to inherit the unique position of asraya-vigrah; even thinking about it will make him egoistic; the pure jivas' existence in the spiritual world is to remain always subservient to Srimati Radharani.
asta-kaliya-lila
the eightfold three-hourly eternal pastimes of Sri-Sri Radha and Krsna in Vraja; the subject of meditation for the advanced devotees.
asta-sakhis
the principal eight dedicated and beloved cowherd s (gopis) who serve Srimati Radharani. They are Lalita, Visakha, Campaklata, Tungavidya, Indulckha, Rangadevi and Sudevi.
asta-sattvika-vikara
eight varieties of ecstatic symptoms manifest by pure devotees, and sometimes even Lord Krsna Himself, while informing their pastimes. They are paralysis, perspiration, horripilation (goosebumps), loss of voice, trembling, devastation (swooning), pallor and crying.
asvamedha atma-nivedana
a Vedic ritualistic sacrifice. the surrender of the soul to the Lord or His representative, the guru; one of the nine principal limbs of devotional service.
atmarama
the self-satisfied transcendentalists who have surpassed material nature; even such liberated persons are attracted to the service of the Supreme Lord.
audasinya
apathetic devotional service, meaning a lack of fixed resolve in sadhana.
aulas
one of the thirteen false branches of devotees who claim to be followers of Lord Caitanya, but are actually attached to material activities.
avidya mahamaya
nescience; Sri Krsna's external energy.
bamya-bhavi
the mood of a liberal, or left-wing, gopi—flamboyant and possessive—exemplified by Srimati Radharani.
basanthana vasantha
the devotee's transcendental sentiment of place of residence in Goloka Vrndavana.
baulas
one of the thirteen false branches of devotees who claim to be followers of Lord Caitanya, but are actually attached to material activities.
bayasa
the devotee's transcendental sentiment of the age of his transcendental form in Goloka Vrndavana.
Bhagavad-gita
the famous summary of transcendental philosophy spoken by Lord Krsna just before the Battle of Kuruksetra; an excerpt of eighteen chapters from the Mahabharata.
bhajana
intimate devotional service; chanting devotional songs in a small group, usually accompanied by musical instruments; solitary chanting.
Bhajana-darpana
a commentary on Manah-siksa written by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura.

bhajana-kutira
a small cottage used for bhajana or intense devotional meditation.
bhajana-siddhi
the perfection of worship.
bhakti or bhakli-yoga
the path of approaching the Supreme Lord Krsna through ecstatic devotional love and service.
bhakti-abhasa
shadow devotion, or bhaki mixed with desires for karma, jnana or yoga.
Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu
"The Ocean of the Pure Nectar of Devotional Service", an important Sanskrit work by Srila Rupa Gosvami, one of the direct disciples of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; it describes the subject matter of rasa in elaborate detail, giving detailed examples from the scriptures.
bhauma-vraja-rasa
the vraja-rasa available on this material plane in Vrndavana-dhama.
bhava
the performance of spontaneous pure devotional service in love of Godhead, with the manifestation of ecstatic symptoms.
bhava-bhakti
rendering spontaneous service, which is superior to regulative devotional service.
bhava-seva
commences only after one has surmounted the namaparadhas; in this stage of seva, one has to be free from all offenses. In bhava-seva, mental service is foremost.
bhoga
indulgence in sense enjoyment.
bhusuragana
bhu means the earth, suranga means demigods; the demigods of earth, or first-class brahmanas.
bimba
a red fruit that grows in Vrndavana.
brahmacari
the stage of celibate student life in Vedic society (varnasrama-dharma).
brahmajyoti
the brilliantly shining rays of the Lord's transcendental body. The goal of the impersonalists.
brahman
the undifferentiated attribute of the Supreme; the effulgence of Lord Krsna's transcendental form.
brahmana
the priestly intellectual class of Vedic society (varnasramadharma.
Caitanya
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the incarnation of the Supreme Lord for the Kali-yuga, in which He plays the role of His own devotee, and propagates the religion of sankirtana, or congregational chanting of the holy name.
candalas
the lowest of men, dog-eaters.
catur-vyuha
the four principal Visnu expansions in the Vaikumha spiritual world: Baladeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.
Caitanya-Bhagavata
an authorized biography of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's early life, written in Bengali by Vrndavana dasa Thakura.
Caitanya-Caritamrta
an authorized biography of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's life, written in Bengali by Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
campaka
fragrant blossoms that grow all over India, but especially in Vrndavana.
camara
a fan made from the tail of a yak, used for chasing flies.

chaya-namabhasa
in its first stage of appearance, namabhasa is shadowy; still, it is of immense benefit to humanity; it is known as chaya-namabhasa or 'the faint shadowy name'.
caranamrita
water, honey or milk, etc. used to bathe the Deities.
cit-sakti
the Lord's potency of eternal existence that supports the existence of the spiritual nature, Vaikuntha, and the material world.
daksina-bhavi
the mood of a conservative, or right-wing, gopi — totally submissive to the will of Krsna — exemplified by Candravali.
dandavat
to offer obeisances by falling down like a stick.
darsana
to see the Deity of the Lord in the temple; to see the Lord face-to-face.
dasya
the spiritual mellow of servitorship; one of the nine principal limbs of devotional service.
Deity
the symbolic representation of the transcendental form of the Lord in stone, wood, metal, paints, or within one's mind the Deity form of the Lord is transcendental because in the spiritual world, a symbol is identical with the thing it represents.
devi-dhama
the material world—abode of Durga-devi.
dhama
a holy place such as Navadvipa, Vrndavana, Jagannatha Puri, etc.; the residence of a powerful demigod, such as Devi-dhama.
dharana
by steady practice of smarana, gradually one reaches permanency of remembrance; to withdraw the mind completely from the external phenomenon and to slightly direct it towards and delve on the Lord.
dharma
the essential function of the living entity, or performance of the activities of self-realization; development of religious values and principles in terms of Vedic social codes (varnasrama-dharma): the inherent nature of any substance.
dharmadhvaji
a person who has no devotion or attachment in the heart but makes a show of it externally; one who wears the clothes of a devotee to accomplish materialistic ends.
dhoti
the traditional male dress in Vedic civilization; a length of cloth, folded cleverly and wrapped around the lower part of the body.
dhruva-anusmrti
when dhyana becomes uninterrupted and gives excessive bliss.
dhyana
to fix the mind in thoughts of a specific form etc. of the Lord; as the rasika devotee meditates in bhava-sadhana on every aspect of the Lord's pastimes connected with his rasa, part by part, minutely, dharana develops into fixed meditation— this is dhyana.
diksa
initiation from a bona fide spiritual master.
diksa-guru
the initiating spiritual master who formally links the disciple with the parampara, or disciplic succession from Lord Krsna Himself.
diksa-mantra
the mantra, or spiritual sound vibration, given to the disciple at the time of initiation; in Kali-yuga, the most authorized diksa-mantra is the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.
Divine Couple
Sri-Sri Radha-Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the supreme pleasure energy of the Lord. Dvaraka Lord Krsna's capital city on the west coast of India, where He performed pastimes as a great King, exhibiting His magnificent opulence.

dvija-brahmana
a twice-born (initiated) brahmana; the first birth is from the natural mother, and the second birth is from the guru, the spiritual father, and the Vedas, the spiritual mother.
ekadasi
the eleventh day of the waxing or waning lunar fortnight; austerities such as fasting, extra chanting and staying awake all night are prescribed to be performed on ekadasi day.
Gaura-nagari
one of the thirteen false branches of devotees who claim to be followers of Lord Caitanya, but are actually attached to material activities; due to their insincerity, they are simply an obstacle on the path to pure devotion; their sambhoga is nothing more than self-aggrandizement and self-serving pleasure.
Gauranga
another name for Lord Caitanya; gaura means gold, and anga refers to His beautiful form.
Giridhari
a name of Krsna meaning 'Lifter of Govardhana Hill'.
Giriraja
a name of Krsna meaning 'King of Govardhana Hill'; a name of Govardhana Hill itself.
gopis
the cowherd damsels of Vrndavana, who are most expert at the art of pure devotional service.
Govardhana
a hill where Lord Krsna performed many pastimes.
govardhana-sila
a stone from Govardhana Hill that is worshipped as non-different from Krsna.
granthi
four rounds chanted on the beads.
grhastha
a married householder in Vedic society (varnasrama-dharma).
guna-avatara
the three incarnations of Krsna in charge of the three qualities (gunas) of material nature; goodness is presided over by Lord Visnu, passion by Lord Brahma and ignorance by Lord Siva.
gunja-mala
a garland of wildfiowers found in Vrndavana.
guru
a spiritual master; the guru may be of two kinds: siska-guru and diksa-guru (which see).
guru-svarupa-
the original, eternal and universal guru principle, or the tattva knowledge potency of the Supreme Lord, of which any particular bona fide guru is considered a personification.
haram
an Islamic (Urdu) word meaning 'something offensive', used to demonstrate the principles of vyavadhana (interrupted) namabhasa because it contains the holy name of Lord Rama (pronounced Ram).
Hari
a name of the Lord meaning, 'one who takes away all the sins of His devotee'.
hari-basar
ekadasi, dvadasi, appearance days, and other holy days and festivals.
Hari-bhakti-vilasa
a Sanskrit work by Srila Sanatana Gosvami in which he presents the ritualistic side of Vaisnava practice (such as Deity worship) in great detail; considered to be a preaching tool to attract the minds of ritualistic smarta-brahmanas to the Vaisnava sampradaya.

Harinama Cintamani
literally, "the beautiful wish-fulfilling gem of the holy name of the Lord". An extensive essay on the ten offenses against the chanting of the holy name of the Lord, and the result of pure chanting, originally written in Bengali by His Divine Grace Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura.
hathikari
an Islamic (Urdu) word used to demonstrate the principles of vyavadhana (interrupted) namabhasa because it contains the holy name of Lord Hari separated by two other syllables (ha-thi-ka-ri).
hela-namabhasa
the element of sraddha is absent in hela-namabhasa chanting; nonetheless, even hela-namabhasa gives one liberation, what to speak of faithful chanting.
hladini-sakti
Krsna's spiritual pleasure-giving potency, personified in Srimati Radharani.
hridaya-daurbaly
awakeness of heart, a cause of difficulty in devotional advancement.
istha-gosthi
spiritual discussion with two or more devotees.
jadya
laziness or even inertia.
Japa
chanting the holy names quietly to oneself, counting the repetitions of the maha-mantra on a japa-mala.
japa-mala
a string of 108 Tulasi beads, with a larger 'Krsna bead' to signify the beginning and end of the string; used for counting the repetitions of the maha-mantra during japa.
Jaya
'All glories! All victory!'
jiva
a spirit soul.
jiva-tattva
the truth of the spirit soul; applied to the individual spirit souls to indicate their status of existence.
jnana
the path of empirical knowledge, culminatng in attainment of impersonal liberation (sayujya-mukti).
jnana-kanda
the scriptures that support the process of jnana; second of the three sections of the Vedas.
jnani
a transcendentalist who attempts to obtain impersonal liberation as a result of empirical knowledge.
kadamba
a large tree, found in Vrndavana, that produces very fragrant blossoms.
kala
eternal time, one of the potencies of the Lord.
kalpataru
a wish-fulfilling tree.
kama
regulated sense enjoyment in terms of Vedic social codes (varnasrama-dharma); lust for sense gratification, especially sex desire.
kama-rupa
devotional service embellished by raga (which see), which is of two kinds: kama-rupa (amorous) and sambandha rupa (relational); see also raganuga-bhakti.

kanistha-adhikari
a materialistic devotee in the neophyte stage.
karma
the law of material cause and effect.
karma-yoga
the process of mundane religious sacrifice as recommended in the karma-kanda sections of the Vedas.
karma-kanda
the sections of the Vedic scriptures that support the process of karma-yoga, or mundane religious sacrifice; the first of the three sections of the Vedas.
karmi
a fruitive worker who attempts to enjoy heavenly bliss through the process of karma-yoga.
kanika-yraia
vows made to perform a particular kind of devotional service, especially in Vrndavana during the month of Kartika (October-November).
kaudi
a small conchshell used for currency in Bengal and Orissa during the time of Lord Caitanya.
Kayastha
persons of mixed caste, who typically took up clerical and administrative jobs in medieval India.
kevala-advaita-vada
the philosophical school of monism.
khaja
a sweet made from sesame paste and sugar candy.
kirtana
the public, loud chanting of the maha-mantra by an assembly of devotees, usually accompanied by musical instruments and ecstatic dancing; audibly chanting the maha-mantra on the beads; one of the nine principal limbs of devotional service.
krsna-bhakti
the spiritual path that concentrates upon love of and service to Krsna as its chief form of practice.
Krsna Caitanya
see Caitanya.
krsna-prema
pure love of Krsna, the object of the path of krsna-bhakti.
ksatriya
the martial-spirited administrative class of Vedic society (varnasrama-dharma); one who protects society from danger.
kuh-guru
a traditional family guru.
kunda
a bathing place or ghat; Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda are two famous kundas in Vrndavana.
lakh
one hundred thousand (100,000 or 1,00,000).
Laksmi-Narayana
Laksmi, the goddess of fortune and wealth, is the eternal maidservant of Lord Narayana, who is the presiding Deity in the Vaikuntha planets; They are worshipped in opulence in the mood of awe and reverence.
lila
the transcendental pastimes of the Supreme Lord.
lila-smarana
to practice the remembrance of Krsna's pastimes; generally, these will be pastimes that facilitate meditation upon the holy name; the asta-kaliya-lila pastime meditations.
lobha
intense greed to follow in the footsteps of an eternal associate of the Supreme Lord who is a permanent resident of Vraja-dharma, and one hundred percent steeped in the mood of ragatmika-bhakti.
Lord Caitanya
see Caitanya

madhurya or madhura-rasa
the spiritual mellow of conjugal love.
madhyama-adhikari
a devotee in the middle stage of spiritual advancement.
mahabhava
the highest expression of ecstatic love for Krsna, possible only in Srimati Radharani.
maha-davagni
this world, a continuous cycle of birth and death, or a raging conflagration that cannot be extinguished by any means other than the congregational chanting of Krsna's holy name.
maha-mantra
Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare; Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. The most powerful mantra in the Vedic literature, propagated by the followers of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the yuga-avatara for the Kali-yuga.
Mahabharata
a long epic poem by Vyasadeva, often called "the fifth Veda"; it describes the story of the Pandavas, five brothers who were intimate devotees of Lord Krsna.
mahabhava
the highest spiritual sentiment, embodied by Srimati Radharani; when anuraga is filled with unsurpassable and matchless magnificence of love, reaching the plateau of madness, it becomes maha-bhava; in this stage, while in each others' company, even the blinking of an eyelid, veiling one's view of the beloved for less than a moment, becomes intolerable, and seconds seem like eons; separation even for a moment seems stretched to timeless eternity; both in union and in separation, all the symptoms of sattvika-bhava and sancaribhava manifest to their fullest degree.
Mahajana
one of eight great religious authorities in the universe; a great devotee.
maha-prasadam
the delicious food and other items offered directly to the Lord in His Deity form and then to His pure devotee; considered to be very purifying.
mana
when the devotee expresses loving resentment, and even the Supreme Lord, desiring to relish this particular emotional exchange, enjoys the mood of reconciliation with His devotee that follows this resentment.
Manah-siksa
a Sanskrit work written by Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, wherein he preaches to his own mind.
manjari
the young female assistants of the sakhis, or girlfriends of Radharani, all between the ages of 6-9 years.
mantra
a mind-purifying, spiritual sound vibration, usually containing one or more names of the Lord, meant to release the mind from material entanglement.
markata-vairagi
a person who practices "monkey renunciation", or externally pretending to be renounced, while actually searching for the objects of the senses.
markata-vairagya
"monkey renunciation", or externally pretending to be renounced, while actually searching for the objects of the senses.
maryada-vada
sadhana-bhakti inspired by scriptural injunctions; such rules and regulations are executed in a mood of awe and reverence and opulence; sometimes called the path of reverence.
Mathura
the district of Mathura is where Gokula Vrndavana is located on this planet; the place where Lord Krsna performed His pastimes as the prince of the Yadu dynasty.
maya
illusion, or material consciousness; an energy of the Supreme Lord.
maya-sakti
the external reflection of the para-sakti, the Lord's internal spiritual potency, is called maya-sakti or material nature; she has produced this material world or devi-dhama ordered by Lord Krsna.

Mayavadi
any person who thinks that the name and form of the Supreme Lord is made of maya, or material energy; ultimately, mayavadis want to merge into the impersonal Brahman (sayujya-mukti), thereby committing spiritual suicide.
mleccha
a meat-eater; one who is Ignorant of Vedic etiquette and cleanliness.
moksa
liberation from material existence in terms of Vedic social codes (varnasrama-dharma).
mukti-abhasa
the shadow of liberation.
mukundo-prcstha
the guru, or one who is very dear to Lord Mukunda, the Supreme Lord who gives liberation from the pangs of material bondage.
nairantarya
an undeviating steadiness in serving.
nama
the pure holy name of the Lord.
nama-dasa
the transcendental sentiment of the devotee's name in his eternal spiritual form in Goloka Vrndavana.
namaparadha
an offense against the holy name of the Lord.
nama-guru
the guru who initiates the disciple into the practice of chanting the holy name of the Lord.
Namabhasa
the chanting of the holy name of the Lord with offenses; namabhasa should not be minimized, for it grants material enjoyment, freedom from all sins, and even liberation to the living entity.
namacarya
Srila Haridasa Thakura, the foremost spiritual authority on the subject of the holy name; one who teaches the offenseless chanting of the holy name by example.
namarasa
the topmost spiritual science of the mellows of the holy name.
Nilacala
another name for Jagannatha Puri, where Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu manifested the last 24 years of His pastimes on this planet.
nirapeksa-sadhaka
the detached devotee; he is a renunciant and celibate.
nirbandha
the minimum daily number of rounds necessary for a pure devotee; the sadhaka should chant the maha-mantra on Tulasi beads; a Japa-mala has 108 beads. Four rounds on the beads makes a granthi. By gradually increasing his chanting, the sadhaka should aspire to chant 16 granthis, or one lakh of holy names daily.
nirisvara
a non-believer, an atheist; a serious aspirant or sadhaka must shun such bad association.
niskapata
honest and sincere; the unrestricted grace of Maya-devi; by her niskapata mercy she gives the science of devotional service to Lord Krsna subtly mixed with material knowledge.
nistha
the stage of steadiness, or firm faith in Krsna. His holy name, and the process of devotional service.
nitya-baddha
an eternally conditioned soul; the residents of devi-dhama.
nitya-mukta
an eternally liberated soul; the residents of Vaikuntha.
nitya-siddha
an eternal associate of the Lord who was never conditioned.
om
the name of the Lord principally used in the Vedic hymns as the seed or original sound.
pada-sevanam
service to the lotus feet of the Lord; one of the nine principal limbs of devotional service.
Padyavall
Sri Rupa Gosvami's poetic description of the Vrndavana pastimes of Radha-Krsna.
palyadasi-bhava
the transcendental sentiment of the mood of a kept maidservant of Krsna.

pan
an intoxicating preparation made from betel nuts and leaves, catechu, pan and other spices.
panca-tattva
the transcendental incarnation of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, manifested in five features: the Lord Himself (Lord Caitanya), the Lord's expansion (Sri Nityananda Prabhu), His incarnation (Sri Advaita Prabhu), His internal potency (Sri Gadadhara Thakura), and His devotee (Sri Srivasa Prabhu).
Pancopasana
worship of the five primary demigods: Visnu, Surya, Siva, Durga and Ganesa; it is a form of covered impersonalism because Visnu is worshipped as a demigod instead of as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
pandita
a learned Vedic scholar whose knowledge is based on scripture.
para-sabi
the Lord's supreme divine potency. Therefore there is no inherent difference between the form of Krsna and His divine nature of para-sakti.
parakastha
the transcendental sentiment of excellence, parakiya-rasa paramour relationship. Rasa can never come to a full bloom other than in the parakiya-rasa.
paramananda
the highest happiness; without the mercy of Radharani he can never experience it; for this the jiva has to pray very sincerely and humbly to attain the devotional sentiments of a resident of Vraja and become intensely greedy for his or her association.
paramatma
the Lord's expansion of Garbhodakasayi Visnu within the heart of every living entity, providing intelligence to the living beings as the Supersoul.
parampara
the disciplic-succession system of spiritual knowledge beginning with the Lord Himself, and continuing down to the present day.
parinisthita
a sadhaka dedicated to rules and regulations; he organizes his life and activities to conform to the rules of devotional service and Deity worship.
prakrti
material and spiritual nature, or that which is enjoyed by the purusa, or Supreme Lord; includes the Vaikuntha planets, the jivas, and material nature.
pramadi
the offense of inattentive chanting of the holy name.
pranama
offering obeisances to the Lord.
pranaya
the mood of familiarity with the Lord.
prarabdha-karma
karmic reactions that are due to fructify during the present lifetime.
pratibimba-abhasa
When the rays of the holy name reflect off the lake of mayavadi thought pratibimba-namabhasa appears, bequeathing sayujya-mukti upon the mayavadis who chant it.
pratibimba-namabhasa
see pratibimba abhasa above.
pratibimba sraddha-abhasa
When a person sees pure firm faith in others, he is impressed; thus sraddha-abhasa or faith is invoked in him. He desires elevation and so chants' constantly, though still with strong attachments to sense pleasures and liberation. His sraddha is not real but has the symptoms of sraddha. This is defined in the scriptures as pratibimba-sraddha-abhasa.
prayascitta
penance to atone for sins.
prayojana
chanting at this stage becomes an indispensable need.
Prayojana
leads a devotee to love of Godhead. The jiva now experiences ecstasy in every moment of chanting.
prema
according to the scriptures, the mature fruit of pure devotion, the acme of all perfection.
Prema bhakti
spontaneous and unalloyed love; the highest transcendental ecstasy attainable by the jiva.

premabhasa
the shadow of prema.
prema-dharma
the path of loving devotional service to the Supreme Lord.
prema-vaicitra
in the rapture of anuraga, there are longings to be born as animals and other lower species that have a direct connection with Krsna; this is prema-vaicitra, or varied love; even in separation, Krsna begins to manifest as only the lover knows and loves Him, giving the lover excessive bliss.
purva-raga
ecstasy in separation from the Lord.
puja
worship, usually in the form of making offerings to the Deity of the Lord.
purana
any of the Vedic historical literatures.
purusa-avatara
one of the expansions of Krsna for the purpose of material creation: Maha-Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu, or Ksirodakasayi Visnu.
Radha
or Radharani Lord Krsna "s personified pleasure energy; She is the female equivalent of Krsna.
raga
the natural and intense loving absorption in, and an unquenchable thirst for, contact with the most worshipable object, Lord Sri Krsna; sneha supplemented by intense craving becomes raga, and In this stage of pure love, even a moment's separation from the beloved is unbearable, while in union, even extreme grief feels exhilarating.
raganuga-bhakti
spontaneous sadhana bom out of an intense attraction for the activities of the residents of Vraja.
ragatmika-bhakti
devotional service embellished by raga (which see), which is of two kinds: kama-rupa (amorous) and sambandha-rupa (relational); see also raganuga-bhakti.
rajasuya
a Vedic ritualistic sacrifice undertaken by a king who wants to become the emperor of the world.
Ramayana
the history of the incarnation of Lord Ramacandra, recorded by the great saint Valmiki.
rasa
or transcendental mellow, is the same spiritual substance as the Supreme Absolute Truth and the realm of pure transcendence; there are seven subsidiary mellows: laughter, wonder, pity, chivalry, anger, fear and ghastliness, and five principal rasas: neutrality, servitude, friendship, parenthood and conjugal love; of the principal rasas, the conjugal or madhurya-rasa is the most excellent.
rasa-tattva
the teachings of Lord Caitanya on the principles of mellows as instructed to Srila Rupa Gosvami.
rasika-bhakta
a saintly soul who is totally detached from material life. Someone who chants the holy name with bhava.
rati
spontaneous attraction for the holy name and for devotional service following in the footsteps of the residents of Vraja.
rati-abhasa
the shadow ofrati.
ruci
or taste is the natural propensity born out of concentrated sukni or piety. There are two kinds of piety, past sukrti and present sukrti.
Rukmini-Dvaraka
Rukmini is Krsna's principal queen in His Dvaraka pastimes; Dvarakadisa is a name of Krsna, the ruler of Dvaraka; They are worshipped in opulence in the mood of awe and reverence.
rupa-dasa
the transcendental sentiment of one's eternal spiritual form in Vrndavana.
rupanugas
followers of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
sadhaka
one who practices sadhana; a practicing devotee.
Sadhana
systematic practices aimed at spiritual perfection, especially Deity worship and chanting the holy name of the Lord.

sadhana-bhakti
there are nine limbs to the practice of sadhana-bhakti: hearing, chanting, remembering, serving, Deity worship, offering everything, friendship, and surrendering everything.
sadhu
pure devotee in the line of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
sadhu-ninda
an offense, to a sadhu.
sadhu-sanga
association with sadhus.
sahajiyas
one of the thirteen false branches of devotees who claim to be followers of Lord Caitanya, but are actually attached to material activities, but make a show of false devotional symptoms.
sakapata
the capricious and illusory mercy of Maya-devi. In the case of sakapata mercy she offers temporary material favors and comforts, and thus controls the jiva. When she is dissatisfied with the jiva's behavior, she casts him into the brahmajyoti sayujya liberation; thus the jiva is doomed.
sakhis
Srimati Radharani's servant s in Vrndavana.
sakhya
the spiritual mellow of friendship; one of the nine principal limbs of devotional service.
sakti
spiritual energy.
saktiman
the energetic source, the Supreme Personalty of Godhead.
sakryavesa-avatara salokya
a jiva who is specially empowered with the Lord's potency for the accomplishment of a specific task. one of the four kinds of liberation accepted by Vaisnavas; living on the same planet as the Lord.
Samadhi
when only the object of deep meditation is spontaneously manifest in the totality of the mind; when the devotes has no interest in anything other than perfect absorption in the pastimes of Lord Krsna.
sambandha
the transcendental sentiment of relationship.
sambandha-jnana
knowledge of the correct understanding of the relationship between God, His energies, and the jiva.
sambandha-rupa
devotional service embellished by raga (which see), which is of two kinds: kama-rupa (amorous) and sambandha-rupa (relational); see also raganuga-bhakti.
sambandha-tattva
the correct understanding of the relationship between God, His energies, and the jiva.
sambhoga-rasa
the devotional mood of enjoying directly with Lord Krsna; sincere devotees should discard any notions of endeavoring for sambhoga rasa, since such an attempt will certainly end in failure.
samipya
one of the four kinds of liberation accepted by Vaisnavas; close association with the Lord.
sampatti-dasa
the stage of inheritance. Finally, when he can separate himself from all his temporary material designations and is steadily fixed in that original spiritual identity for which he yearns, he has reached sampatti-dasa — the inheritance of his spiritual identity.
sampradaya
the disciplic succession beginning from a very prominent devotee of the Lord. There are four commonly accepted Vaisnava sampradayas: Brahma, Kumara, Sri and Rudra.
samvit
the knowledge potency of the Lord, latent within the jiva, through which the Lord realizes His supreme divinity and also makes others know of it.
sanatana dharma
the form of Vedic society composed of four occupational orders (brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra) and four spiritual orders of life (brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa), and centered around the performance of devotional service to the Lord.

sanchari-bhava
directs the flow of ecstatic sentiments in sthayi bhava (which see); in other words, sthayi bhava is its matrix—it expands sthayi bhava and finally merges into it.
sandesa
a sweet made from natural cheese.
sandhini
the Lord's transcendental potency of eternal existence.
sankeia-namabhasa
is of two kinds: 1) when one, though intending to chant Lord Visnu's name, has a material conception of it, and 2) when one has something entirely different than the Lord or His name on his mind, but chants the holy name being somehow or other reminded of that transcendental sound. The yavanas eat cows, yet in spite of this they can attain liberation by uttering haram, an ordinary word of their language (Urdu). The power of the holy name is never diminished even if chanted in sanketa-namabhasa.
sankhya
an ancient philosophy stressing the difference between spirit and matter. There are two sankhya philosophies, an atheistic sankhya propounded by the impostor Kapila, and the authentic theistic sankhya revealed by Lord Kapila, son of Devahuti, the incarnation of Godhead.
sankirtana
means 'complete kirtana', for it is unnecessary to perform any other devotional activities if one performs sankirtana.
sannyasi
the renounced order of spiritual life in Vedic society (varnasrama-dharma).
santa
the spiritual mellow of neutrality.
sari
the traditional dress worn by women in Vedic civilization, consisting of a long cloth, cleverly folded and wrapped around the body.
sarsthi
one of the four kinds of liberation accepted by Vaisnavas; having the same opulence as the Lord.
sarupya
one of the four kinds of liberation accepted by Vaisnavas; obtaining the same form and features as the Lord.
sastra
Vedic literatures like Bhagavad-gita, Srimad-Bhagavatam and other Vaisnava literature. Scriptures or holy books spoken by the Lord.
sattvika-bhava
devotional emotions prompted by purely transcendental feelings.
brahmanas
brahmanas who are situated in the pure mode of goodness.
sayujya-mukti
impersonal liberation, where the jiva merges with the brahmajyoti; considered spiritual suicide.
seva
the transcendental sentiment of service.
sevaparadha
offenses in devotional service.
siddha
a perfected soul who renders service in a suitable spiritual form.
siddha-ruci
permanent spiritual mellow.
siddha-svarupa
attainment of one's eternal spiritual form.
siddhadeha
spiritual identity, viz. one's spiritual name, form, qualities, service and so on. The spiritual master also discloses who the parents of the sadhaki's manjari-identity are, and which house she was born in, who her husband is, and so on.
siksa
transcendental instructions received from the guru through the parampara.
siksa-guru
the spiritual master who offers instructions about progressive spiritual life to the disciple, leading him to realize his siddha-ruci (which see).
sloka
a verse of Sanskrit poetry.
smarana-dasa
the stage of remembering. By pure remembrance of the sentiments of rasa, one desires to practice them; thus one reaches the third stage, smarana-dasa.

smaranam
means remembrance, or to search with the mind for the Lord; one must follow the step-by-step process, remembering first the name, then the form, qualities, etc.; one of the nine principal limbs of devotional service.
smrti
a section of the Vedic literature.
sneha
a super-abundance of love that completely melts the heart to a state of unimaginable liquidity, which is indicated by profuse, unchecked tears; it is in this stage that the devotee's yearning to see Krsna never admits fulfillment.
sraddha
faith in the Supreme Lord, the teachings of the scriptures, and the process of devotional service.
sraddha
ritual an offering of food to departed ancestors.
sraddha-nama
Faithful chanting that is still afflicted by anarthas.
sraddhabhasa
the shadow of faith.
sraddhavan
someone who has faith (sraddha).
sravana
hearing about the name, fame and pastimes of the Lord from authorities; one of the nine principal limbs of devotional service.
sravana-dasa
the stage of hearing. When a sadhaka devotee, having heard about Lord Krsna's pastimes, is attracted to the conjugal mellow, he should take further instruction on rasa from a realized, saintly spiritual master. This is called the stage of hearing or sravana-dasa.
Srimad-Bhagavatam
also known as the Bhagavat-purana, this is the principal scripture of the disciplic succession of Lord Caitanya.
Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu
see Caitanya.
srngara
the spiritual mellow of conjugal love.
sruti
a section of the Vedic literatures.
sruti-sastra
the Vedic literature, which includes the Upanisads, the Puranas and other corollary scriptures, which has emanated from the Supreme Lord Krsna's own lips.
Stava-mala
a collection of very nice prayers written by Srila Rupa Gosvami.
sthayi-bhava
a state of perfection consisting of permanent emotion; also known as rati (which see).
subhakarma
auspicious material activities, such as mundane religious sacrifices, good works, worship of demigods, etc.
suddha-nama
the pure name of the Lord, uncontanimated by any offenses.
sudra
the servant class of Vedic society (varnasrama-dharma).
sujanas
devotees who belong to the four Vaisnava sampradayas.
sukrti
piety from previous births.
summum bonum
the highest good, or the ultimate goal of all activities.
surabhi
the transcendental cows of Lord Krsna, givers of unlimited milk.
svanistha
a sadhaka, or spiritual practitioner, who is devoted to self-realization; he completely rejects all principles of varnasrama-dharma and endeavors solely to satisfy the Supreme Lord Hari.
sva-mantra
one's original or principal mantra.
svarsiki
asta-kaliya-lila smarana is also known as svarsiki worship. In this stage of bhajana, Lord Krsna manifests Himself according to the time and place of the pastime; the spontaneous manifestation of Krsna's unmanifested pastimes without one even desiring it.

sva-ruci
natural taste as a gopi.
svarupa
one's original, eternal spiritual form in relation with Krsna.
svarupa-abhasa
the partial infiltration of the full brilliance; for example, on a cloudy day the light of the sun is present, but the full brilliance of the sun is shaded by the clouds.
svarupa-laksana
principal symptom (i.e. surrender to Lord Krsna) of a sadhu regardless of his varna and asrama.
svarupa-sakti
the internal potency of the Lord Himself. The svarupa-sakti contains the very essence of the hladini and samvit potencies; the amalgam of the svarupa-sakti with the jiva's bliss and knowledge produces the mentality required for pure spontaneous devotion, known as the bhakti-svarupam-sakti.
sveccha-purvika
voluntary meditating on Krsna's pastimes and thereby spontaneous taste.
syama
the Lord's exquisite dark complexion.
tamala
a tree whose bark is similar in color to Krsna's complexion, and whose graceful curving trunk also looks similar to Krsna, found in the forest groves on the banks of the River Yamuna in Vrndavana.
tantra
originally referred to instructions for worshipping, but later became perverted into a style of materialistic demigoddess worship based upon the mode of ignorance.
tatastha
the marginal region (tatastha) of the para-sakti manifests the jiva-sakti. The jiva is eternal and inconceivably one with, and yet simultaneously different from, the Supreme Lord; he is Lord Krsna's energy and is therefore counted among the paraphernalia of the Lord's service.
tathasta-laksana
the material or external symptoms of a sadhu.; they vary according to the varnas and asrama of the devotee.
tattva-vyavadhana
a disruption in the philosophy or conclusions while chanting the holy name; this is a very heinous offense against the holy name.
tilaka
the markings of sacred clay on the forehead and other parts of a Vaisnava's body. Each tilaka marking signifies a temple of a different Visnu expansion of the Lord.
tulasi
a bush often found growing wild in Vrndavana, that is offered to the lotus feet of Lord Visnu; known as the 'holy basil'.
tulasi-mala
a necklace of 109 beads of wood from the Tulasi tree, used for counting while chanting the holy name (see japa-mala).
tyaga
renunciation.
uddipana
stimulants to the madhura-rasa.
Ujjvala-nilamani
a poetic Sanskrit work by Srila Rupa Gosvami describing the intimate Vraja pastimes of Radha and Krsna.
uttama-adhikari
a first-class, self-realized Vaisnava who sees Krsna everywhere in profound ecstasy.
vaibhava
the Lord's energies, exhibitions of His opulences.
vaibhava-prakasa
an expansion of Sri Krsna manifested in relation with His excellences.
vaidhi-bhakti
the vaidhi method of sadhana is devotional service under scriptural rules and regulations.
Vaikuntha
the spiritual existence, where the Supreme Lord lives eternally with His pure devotees on innumerable planets made of spiritual energy.
vaisnava-abhasa
the shadow of a Vaisnava; someone who is almost a Vaisnava.
vaisnava-ninda
offense to the Vaisnavas by fault-finding and criticism.
vaisnava-praya
resembling Vaisnavas; someone who is almost a Vaisnava.

Vaisnavism
the eternal religion and culture of Visnu worship, or devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Goanead.
vaisya
the commercial and banking community of Vedic society (varnasrama-dharma).
vanaprastha
the retired order of Vedic society (varnasrama-dharma).
varana-dasa
the stage of acceptance; when the sadhaka devotee anxiously and eagerly accepts the conjugal mellow, varana-dasa commences.
varna
the occupational divisions of Vedic society (varnasrama-dharma): brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra.
varnasrama
the form of Vedic society composed of four varnas, or occupational orders (brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra) and four asramas, or spiritual orders of life (brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa), and centered around the performance of devotional service to the Lord.
varnasrama-dharma
the occupational and spiritual duties of Vedic society according to the varnasrama system.
varna-vyavadhana
a disruption of the syllables of the holy name (as in the Urdu word hathikari); in the word haram, the syllables comprising the holy name Ram are uninterrupted; hence, speaking haram gives liberation because it is namabhasa.
vatsalya
the spiritual mellow of parenthood; although Krsna is admittedly the master of everyone and everything, in parental love, the Lord becomes subservient to His devotee, who serves and protects the Lord, anxiously hoping that no harm befalls Him.
Vedas
the spiritual literatures of the Vedic society; originally there was one Veda, but it was divided into four by Lord Vyasadeva.
vesa
the transcendental sentiment of the devotee's attire in his eternal spiritual form in Goloka Vrndavana.
vibhava
the element that excites sentiment; the cause or basis for relishing transcendental mellow.
vibhinnamsa
the Lord's separated expansions, exemplified by Parasurama, Buddha, King Prthu, and so on; also, the jiva-tattva.
vibhu
the transcendental Lord, possessor of many energies and opulences.
vidhi
scriptural rules and regulations (see vaidhi-bhakti).
vidya
Krsna's svarupa-sakti or internal spiritual potency.
vilasa-vigraha
a partial expansion of Lord Krsna, such as Lord Narayana.
vipralambha
the mood of separation experienced in the conjugal mellow, which is seemingly painful and sad, but actually full of exhilaration.
viraha
separation, has ten attendant conditions: pondering, sleeplessness, perturbation, emaciation, pallor, incoherent speech, being stricken, madness, delusion, and death (fainting or unconsciousness).

viskepa
the offense of distraction, or misplacing one's attention in engagements not directly connected with sadhana-bhakti. an expansion of the Lord belonging to the Visnu category.
visnu-tattva
another name for the village of Vrndavana and the surrounding area, 168 square miles in extant where Krsna performed His childhood pastimes.
Vraja
another name for the village of Vrndavana and the surrounding area, 168 square miles in extant where Krsna performed His childhood pastimes.
Vraja-basi-jana
the pure devotees who actually reside in the sacred dhama and render loving service to Sri-Sri Radha and Krsna.
vraja-rasa
the spiritual mellow of the residents of Vrndavana.
vraja-sadhana
bhajana in the mood of the residents of Vrndavana.
vrata
a vow.
Vrndavana
the residence of Lord Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, where He sports in eight kinds of pastimes with His intimate devotees; the supreme planet in the Vaikuntha spiritual sky (Goloka Vrndavana); the place on the Earth planet 90 miles southeast of Delhi, India, where Krsna performs His childhood pastimes when He appears here (Gokula).
vyabhicari
the thirty-three devotional sentiments manifest by the gopis and Lord Krsna Himself while participating in their pastimes; these churn the ocean of rasa.
vyavadhana
a disruption in the mellows of chanting the holy name of the Lord; this disruption is of two kinds: varna-vyavadhan and tattva-vyavadhan (which see).
yavana
a fierce, demoniac meat-eater who does not practice Vedic rites.
yoga
in general, a spiritual path or practice in which one seeks his relationship and connection with the Lord—yoga means 'union' in Sanskrit; more specifically, contemporary yoga is a spiritual path based upon mental speculation and impersonal meditation in which the goal is to merge into the existence of the Lord, thus committing spiritual suicide.
yogamaya
Sri Krsna's svarupa-sakti (which see) or internal spiritual potency.
yogi
a practitioner of yoga.
yukta-vairagya
renunciation of attachment to material objects, at the same time using every ming in the service of the Lord.
yutha-pravesa
the transcendental sentiment of entrance into a group of gopis in one's permanent spiritual identity in Goloka Vrndavana.
yuthesvari
one of Lord Krsna's many female gopi group leaders; Srimati Radharani is everyone's favorite yuthesvari—serving Krsna under Her direction is the ultimate spiritual experience.